These instruments and recommendations provide the legal and political basis for language education policies at all levels which not only facilitate the acquisition of a repertoire of language varieties – linguistic diversity for the plurilingual individual – but also seek to ensure that attention is paid to diversification of the options for language learning. There is a need to encourage and facilitate the learning of a wide range of languages, not only those which have been dominant in language teaching traditions, and not only English, for which there is currently an overwhelming demand.
Particular attention is drawn to Recommendation CM/Rec(2014)5 on languages of schooling because most previous documents have focused mainly on modern/foreign languages. It is necessary to include national/official languages in language education policies because they are part of the linguistic repertoire of individuals when these languages are the language(s) of schooling/instruction. In the third part of the Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe, options for the implementation of policies include the teaching and learning of national/official languages, which for many but by no means all individuals are their mother tongue/ first language.